The X keyboard extensionor XKB, defines the way keyboards codes are handled in X, and provides access to internal translation tables. It is the basic mechanism that allows using multiple keyboard layouts in X. This article describes how to modify and create keyboard layouts. It is easy to end up disabling some keys on your keyboard for the current X session while working with XKB.
Make sure you have some way to terminate the session without using your keyboard. While it is rare, changing XKB configuration can sometimes hang or crash X server. Make sure you can handle it. Having some way to killall X or reboot the host remotely may be a good idea. Stop xxkbor any other layout switching applications. Debugging both at the same time is not a good idea. Use xkbcomp 1 package xorg-xkbcomp to manipulate XKB data. To get current configuration, run.
It will, however, check the syntax and report errors. The actual file name is irrelevant. Note that unlike standard system-wide configuration via xorg.
Also, there is no problem changing XKB configuration while X is running. The core XKB functionality is quite simple, and it's necessary to have a some ideas on how it works before starting working on the keymaps. Use xev package xorg-xev to get keycodes and to check how your keymap works. Note keycode 21, state 0x1 and keysym 0x2b aka plus. Keycode 21 is what input device supplied to X, typically a physical key index of some sort.
The state represents modifier keys, 0x01 is Shift. Keycode together with the state value is what X sends to the application in XKeyEvent 3 structure. Keysym and corresponding string is what the client obtained using XLookupString 3 and friends.
Keysyms are numeric, too. However, the number is what clients actually receive. Keysyms are only important when an application expects some particular values; typically that is keys like arrows, Enter, Backspace, F-keys, and various shortcuts. For the rest, the string is used. XKB works mostly at the XLookupString stage, transforming incoming keycode into keysym according to its own internal state, which is group and state values:.
Ask Ubuntu is a question and answer site for Ubuntu users and developers. It only takes a minute to sign up. I ran the Software Manager and now startx doesn't start anymore. After I start my laptop and log in, the screen stays stuck on the login page I tried with both gdm and lightdm. Making sure I have enough space disk: here's a df output, it doesn't seem to be the problem. I have uninstalled with purge and reinstalled xserver-xorg and ran dpkg-reconfigure xserver-xorg but no luck.
Update If I stop the display manager before retrying to start startx I get the following errors:. The only solution I found is to run startx as root, then it works but I shouldn't need to do that! Update 2 The best solution I found so far is to switch to virtual terminal, remove the. But I need to do this every time I boot. Ubuntu Community Ask! Sign up to join this community. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top.
Asked 6 years, 6 months ago. Active 3 years, 10 months ago. Viewed 65k times. This could be a missing or incorrect setup of xkeyboard-config.
Closing log file. Xauthority However if I chown the file and reboot I still have the same problem.Telegram storage
Xauthority The only solution I found is to run startx as root, then it works but I shouldn't need to do that! MasterScrat MasterScrat 1 1 gold badge 1 1 silver badge 6 6 bronze badges. Are you stopping the display manager e. The log complains about not being able to write the keyboard configuration. JoS yes, that's correct. And what if you stop lightdm and remove the root-owned. Xauthority file? Active Oldest Votes. Try to remove your. Xauthority And restart your system with your normal user account.
Sylvain Pineau Sylvain Pineau Ahmed Al-attar Ahmed Al-attar 1 1 silver badge 13 13 bronze badges. This works, but I need to do it every time I boot. David Foerster Rann Rann 11 1 1 bronze badge. This is not the correct answer and is in fact dangerous to run. Recursively changing the permissions on a system folder is a bad idea in general, but this command will just break a user's install. Please refer here for a proper solution. Sign up or log in Sign up using Google.
Sign up using Facebook.This article describes the basics of Xorg keyboard configuration. For advanced topics such as keyboard layout modification or additional key mappings, see X keyboard extension or Extra keyboard keys respectively. Optionally, xmodmap can be used to access the internal keymap table directly, although this is not recommended for complex tasks. Also systemd 's localectl can be used to define the keyboard layout for both the Xorg server and the virtual console.
There are some "unofficial" utilities which allow to print specific information about the currently used keyboard layout. This article or section needs expansion. The layout name is usually a 2-letter country code. Alternatively, you may use one of the following commands to see a list without a description:. See xkeyboard-config 7 for more detailed information.
This overrides system-wide configuration specified following Using X configuration files. The usage is as follows see setxkbmap 1 :. The syntax of X configuration files is explained in Xorg Configuration. This method creates system-wide configuration which is persistent across reboots.
For convenience, the tool localectl may be used instead of manually editing X configuration files. To set a modelvariant or optionsall preceding fields need to be specified, but the preceding fields can be skipped by passing an empty string with "". Unless the --no-convert option is passed, the specified keymap is also converted to the closest matching console keymap and applied to the console configuration in vconsole. See localectl 1 for more information.
X keyboard extension
To be able to easily switch keyboard layouts, first specify multiple layouts between which you want to switch the first one is the default. Then specify a key or key combinationwhich will be used for switching. To get the full list of available options, run the following command:.
In order for either method to work, one also needs to have DontZap set to "off" in ServerFlags ; however, from at least version R6. Run the following command to see similar options along with their descriptions:. Mouse keys is disabled by default and has to be manually enabled by passing keypad:pointerkeys to XkbOptions.
See also X keyboard extension Mouse control for advanced configuration. Though typically not on traditional keyboards, a Compose key can be configured to an existent key. The Compose key begins a keypress sequence that involves usually two additional keypresses.
Usage is typically either for entering characters in a language that the keyboard was not designed for, or for other less-used characters that are not covered with the AltGr modifier. Though a few more eccentric keyboards feature a Compose key, its availability is usually through substituting an already existing key to it.
For example, to make the Menu key a Compose key use the Desktop environment configuration, or pass compose:menu to XkbOptions or setxkbmap : setxkbmap -option compose:menu.
XCompose and editing it. The compose key works with any of the thousands of valid Unicode characters, including those outside the Basic Multilingual Plane. Take a look at the Compose 5 man page, it explains the format of the XCompose files.
XCompose keys. Those who prefer typing capital letters with the Caps Lock key may experience a short delay when Caps Lock state is switched, resulting in two or more capital letters e.Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical environment at their fingertips.
This guide explains what Xorg is, how to install it, and the various configuration options. An average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands at a command-line interface CLI. Why wouldn't they be able to point-and-click their way through the freedom provided by Gentoo and Linux in general?
Well, of course they can! Gentoo offers a wide variety of flashy graphical interfaces such as window managers and desktop environments which can be installed on top of an existing installation. One of the biggest surprises users who are new to Linux come across: graphical user interfaces are nothing more than an application or in some cases a suite of applications which are run on a system. It is not part of the Linux kernel or any other internals of the system. That said, GUIs are powerful tools that unlock the graphical abilities of a workstation.
As standards are important, a standard for drawing and moving windows on a screen, interacting with the user through mouse, keyboard, and other basic, yet important aspects has been created and named the X Window Systemcommonly abbreviated as X11 or just X. It is used on Unix, Linux, and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world. The application that provides Linux users with the ability to run graphical user interfaces and that uses the X11 standard is Xorg-X11, a fork of the XFree86 project.
XFree86 has decided to use a license that might not be compatible with the GPL license; the use of Xorg is therefore recommended. XFree86 packages are no longer provided through the Gentoo repository.
The X.Ampoule glass particles
It is an open source Xbased desktop infrastructure. Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software you want to run.Principle of marketing slideshare chapter 2
Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you are able to run an application on one system while viewing it on a different one. Before you can install Xorg, you need to prepare your system for it.
First, we'll set up the kernel to support input devices and video cards. Read the Kernel Configuration Guide if you don't know how to setup your kernel. Modern open source video drivers rely on kernel mode setting KMS. KMS provides an improved graphical boot with less flickering, faster user switching, a built-in framebuffer console, seamless switching from the console to Xorg, and other features.
Next configure the kernel to use the proper KMS driver for the video card. For Intel cards see the kernel section of the Intel article. For a full open source system, an open source driver entitled Nouveau is suggested. This article recommends the Nouveau driver, however be aware not all functionally for certain cards may be supported using the open source driver.
In addition to the kernel driver, certain cards require closed source firmware to be built-in to the Linux kernel.
Once one of these packages has been installed, make the Radeon driver a module in the kernel or, optionally, configure the kernel as detailed in the firmware section of the Radeon article or, for newer AMD graphics cards GCN1.
Exit the kernel configuration, rebuild the kernel, and reboot.I installed Arch linux as well drivers Nvidia, xorg-server, plasma, sddm. All is well X started successfully, but had nothing to do, so it exited normally. With SDDM enable, do not run the computer. This is probably unrelated to this problem, but remove your xorg. Running nvidia-xconfig is unnecessary has been for several years.
It just tends to cause problems. There seems to be no display attached to the auto-selected primary GPU on PCI, check the journal whether some crucial KDE part usually ksmserver stumbles about that. You should either attach a monitor to that GPU or explicitly select the primary device.
And this is not the end of complications. I spent a lot of time on configuration. I have 6 monitors. They are not configurable and can not be resized default x Turning Xineram on breaks the system.Liqui moly vs pennzoil ultra platinum
The computer works perfectly and the system works flawlessly. Debian, Mint and others have always had a problem with these cards. Atom topic feed. Arch Linux. Index Rules Search Register Login. You are not logged in. Topics: Active Unanswered. I give login and password, nvidia-xconfig. Server terminated successfully 0. Closing log file. I am surprised. Last edited by jaergenoth Pages: 1.
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At home, he worked just as tirelessly at being a good father, son, brother, husband and friend. No one worked harder on every part of their life than Gord. Thank you for all the help and support over the past two years. Join Spirit of the West with hosts Dave Bidini and Boom 97. Doors open at 7PM and performances start at 8PM on September 13, 2017 at the Mod Club Theatre, 722 College Street in Toronto, Ontario. Since 2015, John has used the power of song to raise awareness about music therapy for people living with dementia.
All proceeds from the concert support the Alzheimer Society of Toronto's Music Project, which provides personalized playlists and iPods for people living with dementia in Toronto. Concert-goers will be participating in the second annual Fund-A-Need, which aims to raise enough money to supply music to 400 people living with Alzheimer's disease and dementia, so get ready to donate. This weekend we're in West Vancouver for a free show. Craig is also doing a show there with The Transcanada Highwaymen.
Lots of Odds for Fredericton. We had some special guests out to add to the fun in the sun (and giant bathtub).
Nick Jones of Pointed Sticks sang. Dale Powers of the Dishrags was there.Don't let them make you think you shouldn't shop around. Check the offers available for specific bets.
The first goalscorer market is one of the most popular bets in football and as a result, bookies all have their own spin on it.
Betfred will double the odds if your player scores twice and treble the odds if he scores a third time. Ladbrokes, on the other hand, will double the odds if he scores within 25 minutes and you will probably find that most other bookies have their own version to try and get you through their doors instead of someone else's. Your research should tell you which of these offers will most suit you for any given match.
Be flexible and be prepared to put in the leg work. This is something that, even though it seems like common sense, punters forget all the time. The fewer selections you include in your bet, the more chance you stand of winning.
If you're betting to make money think small, not big. One team or selection if you can stake enough. Three or four maximum. Once you find yourself putting that 20-fold accumulator on, you really are on cloud cuckoo land. Bookies lose most of their money from singles. But trebles usually offer a decent return if you really do want a higher payout.
If you do find yourself desperately wanting that long-shot bet on a Saturday afternoon, do not pad out your accumulator with odds-on selections. You're decreasing your chance of winning for next to no extra cash. This is really easy to do in tennis. It's the opening week of a Grand Slam and you see the top players are all drawn against relative unknowns. It would seem like a great idea to lump them altogether in a multiple to try and win some easy money.
But this would be a mistake. It would make more sense to do some research and find an up-and-coming player who has a favourable draw and back them at a better price. Again, once you've done enough research, you should know you're sport well enough to find better value in the hundreds of other markets the bookies offer.
It is arguably a way for the bookies just to provide you with more ways to lose but you can find the good prices if you look hard enough. They're higher than them in the league but does that mean they're a stronger team. That's for the football pages to discuss. But just a minimal amount of research shows that Jamie Vardy is the league's top scorer.
So betting on him to score anytime is as safe as bets come. While we're on the subject of the less obvious markets, if you do pick an obscure one, make sure to check the terms with the betting shop staff. If you back your team to win both halves, you are betting on them to win the first half and the second half separately. The team must score more goals than the opposition in both halves for you to win your bet.
It's a subtle difference but frustrating for punters who come looking to collect winnings when they're team was leading 2-1 at half time and won the match 2-1. The second-half score must have been 0-0 and so the bet goes down. You might really want your team to win.
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